EV drives on electrical energy using at least one electric motor. These vehicles are propelled by at least one electric motor. A good example is an electric locomotive that draws power directly from overhead wire or third rail. “Electric vehicle” is often cleverly interchanged with “Electrified vehicle,” which doesn’t specify what kind of powertrain vehicle it has.
An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources or self-contained with a battery or generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft, and electrically powered space vehicles.
Electric vehicles do not have a secondary source for propulsion, such as an internal combustion engine that is mechanically linked to wheels. This term doesn’t specify whether the vehicle relies on an external power source or has it on board.
EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The first demonstration electric vehicles were made in the 1830s, and commercial electric cars were available by the end of the 19th century.
The electric vehicle has entered its third century as a commercially available product. It has been very successful, outlasting many other technical ideas that have come and gone. However, electric vehicles have not enjoyed the enormous success of internal combustion (IC) engine vehicles that generally have much longer ranges and are very easy to refuel. Today’s concerns about the environment, particularly noise and exhaust emissions, coupled with new batteries and fuel cell developments, may swing the balance back in favor of electric vehicles. Therefore, the principles behind the design of electric cars and the relevant technological and environmental issues are thoroughly understood.
The internal combustion engine (ICE) has been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost 100 years. Still, electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles.
See electric vehicles by propulsion system: https://eaglesgarage.com/vocabulary/propulsion-system/
It is adapted from the introduction of Electric Vehicle Technology Explained by James Larminie.