There are different battery technologies which are widely used in electric vehicles and are still under research. In this article you will find a detailed review of EV battery types.
The reason for the proliferation of all kinds of batteries is the aim to make cleaner and safer environment through e mobility. Energy policies have been changing in favor of clean energy. Concrete steps have been taken both by states and different industries. Electric vehicles have been developed and supported on a large scale. Plans to limit the use of internal combustion vehicles and to terminate them completely in the near future, are underway.
Yet, the technology used in EVs needed to be improved in order for EV use to reach the desired level. And the most important parameter affecting the range and preferability of electric vehicles is battery technology. This is why further improvement of battery types and battery technologies is inevitably important.
Lead-acid batteries (Pb-acid)
A type of rechargeable battery. It is a long-standing and common technology used in many projects.
High discharge current, low self-discharge, no memory effect, and being inexpensive are the advantages of lead acid batteries. Low nominal voltage and low energy density can be counted among disadvantages. In addition, battery life is reduced when not in use.
Nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd)
A type of rechargeable battery. It has a safe and inexpensive battery technology. It uses nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. Nickel cadmium batteries provide high discharge current. It has a higher energy density than lead-acid batteries.
The disadvantages are poor charge/discharge efficiency, high self-discharge and high memory effect.
Nickel metal hydrate batteries (NiMH)
A type of rechargeable battery. It was developed as an alternative system to eliminate the disadvantages of nickel cadmium batteries. A metal hydrate electrode was used instead of a cadmium electrode.
Nickel metal hydrate batteries have a higher energy density while their rated voltages are equal.
However, compared to nickel cadmium batteries, nickel metal hydrate batteries have higher self-discharge and lower safety in case of overcharging.
Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion)
Lithium metal oxides are used as positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries.
The advantage of lithium-ion batteries; Lithium metal oxides in its content are low toxic and have high capacity and cheap compared to other materials. It has higher nominal voltage and higher energy density compared to other battery groups. They are the most preferred batteries in electric vehicles. Its use is quite common.
BEVs generally contain much higher capacity batteries than hybrid vehicles, as they run on electricity only.
Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries (Li-Po)
They have almost the same features as lithium-ion batteries. The only difference between them is the use of polymer material as the electrolyte in lithium-ion polymer batteries.
The electrical conductivity of the polymer electrolyte material is higher than other organic liquid electrolytes.
In addition, the use of this material enables lithium polymer batteries to be produced more easily, faster and in different ways
Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries (LiFe Po4)
They are lithium-based batteries with lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode material. It has advantages such as high energy density and more reliable use.
However, compared to lithium-ion batteries, it has a low performance.
Lithium Sulfide Batteries (Li-S)
One of the lithium-based battery groups. Lithium sulfide batteries use sulfur as the cathode material. High energy density, high charging efficiency and low cell voltage are their main features.
Battery Technologies and Features Used in Electric Vehicles
|Types of Batteries||Nominal Voltage|
|Energy Density (Wh/kg)||Cycle Life|
|Memory Effect||Operating Temperature|
|Nickel-metal hydrate||1.2||70-95||<3000||Rare||-20, +60|
|Lithium-ion Polymer||3.7||130-225||>1200||No||-20, +60|
|Lithium Iron Phosphate||3.2||120||>2000||No||-45, +70|
|Lithium Sulfide||2.5||350-650||300||No||-60< +60|
Today, electric vehicles have become a solution to the effects of greenhouse gases caused by internal combustion engine vehicles. EVs provide a quieter, more environmentally friendly and more economical transportation with the electrical energy used as fuel.
Various battery technologies with different rated voltages and energy densities are used as well as being developed for EVs. In this post, we reviewed different battery technologies with their prominent features. We talked about which battery technologies are used in electric vehicles and made you get to know your prospective electric car more closely.
Keep up with us and gain a better understanding of the EV world.
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